• 2019-06
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  • 2020-03
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  • 2021-03
  • using ICP MS analysis As shown in Fig a


    using ICP-MS analysis. As shown in Fig. 2a, the Au content of the tumor
    The thermal dose was calculated from the temperature profile of the increases with prolonging time after injection so that the maximum
    tumor during photothermal therapy using the empirical relationship concentration of Au α-CEHC in tumor tissue was found 24 h after in-
    developed by Separeto and Dewey, which is as follows [16,17]:
    time interval was used between the administration of the nanocomplex
    (1) and laser irradiation to achieve maximum therapeutic efficiency. To
    further demonstrate the in vivo fate of the nanocomplex, we evaluated
    where t is the time spent at temperature T and RCEM is the ratio of
    its biodistribution in different organs 24 h after injection (Fig. 2b).
    exposure times that result in the same cell survival for a 1 °C rise in
    Beside the tumor, the Au element was predominantly accumulated in
    temperature. For many cell types, RCEM is generally considered to be 0.5
    lung and spleen, and to a lesser extent in liver, which are all known as
    the reticuloendothelial system (RES) organs, whilst the Au content of
    [16,17]. The value of R implies that the rate of cell death doubles for
    kidney was found to be negligible. This implies that ACA nanocomplex
    every degree of temperature rise above 43 °C and is reduced by a factor
    can be cleared mainly via the RES.
    2.7. Tumor metabolic activity
    3.3. In vivo thermometry and thermal dose calculations

    mography (PET) imaging was performed using a micro-PET scanner In order to evaluate the in vivo photothermal e ect of ACA nano-
    complex, the temperature pro fi le of the tumor with and without in-
    (Xtrim PET) on the 10th day of the study period. The mice were injected
    clusion of the nanocomplex was recorded using infrared thermal ima-
    via the tail vein with 200 μCi of [18 F]FDG in 200 μL PBS. After a resting ging. Fig. 3a shows the rising temperature profile of the tumor during
    period of 15 min, the animals were anesthetized via an intraperitoneally 2

    injection of 100 mg/kg ketamine and 10 mg/kg xylazine. The whole- laser irradiation (X W/cm , 15 min) at the three di erent treatment
    sessions (S1, S2, and S3). Compared to the tumor without nanocomplex
    body PET image acquisition was performed for 20 min in 3-dimensional that showed a mild temperature rise under laser irradiation ( T = 5.6
    (3D) list mode. Tumor metabolism was quantified by extracting meta- °C), the tumors treated with the nanocomplex prior to laser irradiation
    bolic parameters of PET such as standard uptake value (SUV), metabolic
    tumor volume (MTV) and total lesion glycolysis (TLG).
    reached to higher temperatures. Surprisingly, there was a signi cant
    difference in the temperature elevation rate of the tumors treated with
    the nanocomplex at the different sessions under similar treatment
    conditions. After 15 min laser irradiation, the average temperature of
    the tumors without the nanocomplex at different treatment sessions
    3.1. Characterization of ACA nanocomplex
    was 40.8 °C, whereas the tumors treated with the nanocomplex reached
    The TEM image of the nanocomplex is shown in Fig. 1a wherein S3 respectively.
    AuNPs can be seen as black spots, which are coated by alginate hy- The in vivo thermometry results were analyzed based on CEM 43 °C
    drogel. The hydrodynamic diameter of ACA nanocomplex measured by in order to normalize different thermal histories to a common basis for
    DLS analysis was in the range of 20–80 nm, with the highest frequency comparison. The values of thermal dose applied to the tumors treated
    around 44 nm and the polydispersity index (PDI) value of 0.38 that with laser alone and ACA + laser are presented in a logarithmic scale in